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Questions Tue Jun 26 Cabot Trail The Cabot Trail is the jewel of Atlantic Canada’s tourism industry, especially if you’re a motorcycle rider. We were camped the night before just outside of Cape Breton island and only had a couple of hundred kms to reach the beginning of the Cabot Trail in St Anns, after circumnavigating the south-east section of the island. The decision was to ride the coastal road of the Trail counter-clockwise so we would experience the scenery of the coast to our right. Back to group riding! We left most of the planning and ride leading to Khanh, on his custom-painted VFR , as he led us into the heart of Cape Breton. It was a really big change in rhythm as we rode with 6 other riders and at times we split up into two groups of four to keep things manageable, but the light traffic on the island meant stayed together as a group for the most part.

Global Tectonics, 3rd Edition

Archaeobotanical evidence for a massive loss of epiphyte species richness during industrialization in southern England. This paper describes a novel archaeological resource—preserved epiphytes on the timber structure of vernacular buildings—used, to our knowledge, for the first time to quantify a loss of biodiversity between pre-industrial and post-industrial landscapes. By matching the confirmed occurrence of epiphyte species for the pre-industrial period, with a statistical likelihood for their absence in the present-day landscape post- , we robustly identified species that have been extirpated across three contrasting regions in southern England.

First, the scale of biodiversity loss observed—up to 80 per cent of epiphytes—severely challenges biodiversity targets and environmental baselines that have been developed using reference points in the post-industrial period. Second, we examined sensitivity in the present-day distribution of extirpated species, explained by three environmental drivers:

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Results of the TreeMix analysis. A The maximum-likelihood tree of nine populations included in the analysis. B Residual fit from the tree. Residuals above zero indicate pairs of populations that are candidates for admixture events. C Population graph that best fits the data, based on the smallest residuals D. Finally, to further test the robustness of this inference, we used the 4 Population Test statistic f4

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Reprinted with permission from Routledge; copyright Logbooks and diaries, such as the diary kept by Benjamin Franklin when he was American ambassador in Paris during the s, provide another, complementary source of data. Many historical documents, rather than recording weather per se, provide indirect evidence of past climatic conditions. Historical paintings of alpine landscapes, for example, allow us to pinpoint the former extent of glaciers at precise moments in time, thus contributing to the temperature reconstructions derived from glacier length records discussed in Chapter 7.

Similar, but potentially more continuous, time series of sea ice cover have been derived from Antarctic whaling records and from observations of drift ice around the coast of Iceland e. In the tropics and in dryland regions, periods of drought and flood are most frequently reported; Endfield et al.

Abstract. This paper presents a new lichenometric dating curve for southeast Iceland. The temporal framework for the curve is based on reliably dated surfaces covering the last years, making it the best constrained study of this nature conducted in Iceland.

All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. It was twice as high as in contemporaneous Cedynia 0. The introduction of the T allele to Kuyavia 7. It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6. The identified frequency profile indicates that both the introduction and the beginning of selection could have taken place approx. We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals.

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Usage Factbook photos – obtained from a variety of sources – are in the public domain and are copyright free. It is also one of three volcanic peaks in Mexico – together with Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl – that retain summit glaciers. The last recorded eruption took place in ; while the volcano is considered dormant at present, geologists continue to investigate the potential hazards associated with a renewal of activity. Shadows accentuate several features of the Pico de Orizaba stratovolcano visible in this photograph from the International Space Station.

The meter-deep summit crater is clearly visible against surrounding ice and snow cover at center.

He specializes in the areas of structural geology and continental tectonics and has worked extensively on the evolution of orogenic belts and fault systems in New Zealand, Patagonia, West Antarctica, Australia, British Columbia and southeast Alaska.

GEOL – Lecture Notes Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain The Hawaiian Island chain is one of the largest and most striking features on the surface of our planet, yet it is not related to any of the major types of plate boundaries. Since most volcanoes on the Earth’s surface are related to plate boundaries, the Hawaiian Islands represent a profound enigma and a reason for geologists to spend copius amounts of time in Hawaii.

The Hawaiian Island chain consists not only of the main Hawaiian islands and adjacent French Frigate shoals, but are also connected to the Emperor Seamounts, a large, linear submarine range that runs northward to the Aleutian subduction zone where it disappears. This extensive line of volcanoes represents anomalous lava production and by inference a zone of excess heat in the underlying mantle.

In the early ‘s the term “hotspot” was coined for regions like Hawaii where anomalous heat could be recognized, though the origin of such regions still remains quite puzzling. In this lecture we’ll explore the structure of the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain and in the next we’ll talk about possible theories of how hotspots evolve. Mars has no plate tectonics, so hotspot volcanism results in building huge volcanoes that dominate the surface of the planet.

The Hawaiian Island chain and related Emperor Seamounts are conspicuous features, but don’t stand out nearly as well. The image of Earth uses submarine topography in combination with a satellite photo to see the seamounts beneath the ocean, otherwise only a few of the largest islands would be visible from space. The moving plates on the Earth prevent any single volcano from sitting over the hotspot long enough to build such huge edifices.

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They are now exactly two years into their second attempt to do just this. The calves drank all the milk and they received penalties for not providing enough milk to their buyer. After six months they had to stop and began the slow separation process to minimise trauma.

• To have students construct an approximate temperature curve (average temperatures higher than, lower than, or similar to today) for Iceland for the past years based on a variety of climate proxies.

She began research on glacier retreat around the North Patagonian Ice field in and has continued working there to the present using both lichenometry and dendrogeomorphology to date rock surfaces exposed since the Little Ice Age. Currently her interest has expanded to investigate the use of dendrogeomorphology as a tool for analyzing landscape processes and rates of change in temperate and arid environments.

Further to this purpose, in she set up the Oxford Laboratory of Dendrogeomorphology and in ran the “20th International Dendroecological Field week” in North Devon in collaboration with the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow, and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf, Zurich, the originators of this annual event. A privately-owned gallery forest beside the Mandrare River in the dry south-east, home to iconic ring-tailed lemurs, is threatened by degradation due to an invasive vine and local climatic effects linked to location and tree age.

Vanessa’s analysis shows that the forest can be divided into 3 zones of degeneration as defined by the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. Recommendations as to treatment of the degenerated zones follow the Kew guidelines. Chilean Patagonia, North Patagonian Ice field: Vanessa took part in an expedition to study the retreat rates of Glaciar San Benito on the western side of the ice field in spring Vanessa and her colleagues have now studied eleven glaciers around the ice field between them, five on the western and six on the eastern side.

School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford

Ophthalmic Research Group Abstract Lichenometric dating lichenometry involves the use of lichen measurements to estimate the age of exposure of various substrata. Because of low radial growth rates and considerable longevity, species of the crustose lichen genus Rhizocarpon have been the most useful in lichenometry. The primary assumption of lichenometry is that colonization, growth and mortality of Rhizocarpon are similar on surfaces of known and unknown age so that the largest thalli present on the respective faces are of comparable age.

This review describes the current state of knowledge regarding the biology of Rhizocarpon and considers two main questions: The data suggest that these processes may not be comparable on different rock surfaces, especially in regions where growth rates and thallus turnover are high. In addition, several variables could differ between rock surfaces and influence maximum thallus size, including rate and timing of colonization, radial growth rates, environmental differences, thallus fusion, allelopathy, thallus mortality, colonization and competition.

Hailed by many seafarers as “the most beautiful harbor in the world,” the prominent Harbour Bridge and the sail-like curves of the Sydney Opera House grace the backdrop of Sydney’s picturesque harbor, the largest port in the South Pacific.

Abbreviations , which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement.

Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN. Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters.

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Dotted line marks water saturation of the system. Also shown are P-T conditions estimated for the Aktash tonalitic gneisses red dot , compared to those for the Itsaq purple square , Anshan green diamond , and Acasta group 2, blue triangle TTG gneisses. Whereas most Eoarchean TTGs were likely derived from thickened lower crust 1. This is consistent with the results of recent geochemical 11 , 12 , 16 , experimental 37 , and thermodynamic studies 10 , However, the Aktash samples are similar to HP TTGs and can only be generated by partial melting of rutile-bearing eclogites with no plagioclase and minor or no amphibole in the residue at 1.

This significantly exceeds the crustal thickness of modern oceanic arcs and oceanic plateaus and is probably also difficult to achieve for early Archean crust, which was probably rheologically weak due to higher mantle potential temperature and would be gravitationally unstable delaminated at the base once thickened to 40 to 50 km

This relatively new site (dating from the s) has become one of the premier birding destinations in the region, with a bird list of well over species. Red Slough’s 5, acres have been extensively managed to restore wetlands and re-establish bottomland hardwood forest, and the result is a rich environment with varied birdlife.

It brims with adventure yet the experience is often defined by serenity. Endlessly incomprehensible landscapes are matched by a friendly familiarity at every destination. Unique geological features test definitions of natural beauty, yet the journey through Middle Earth is a smooth one. Fjords slice through the South, jagged snowy peaks gaze upon calm alpine lakes, geothermal jets burst through Jurassic rock, while forest and beach merge before your eyes.

Ethereal landscapes greet you from the plane window, tower over your boutique hotel, and accompany every intrepid turn. Visitors with more time can veer and venture, sweeping across the country to remote destinations that scream of a lost world. No day is ever lost here. Look left, look right, turn around, and the country continues to evoke superlatives. You may have seen Lord of the Rings on the big screen, but that doesn’t come close to what New Zealand really looks like.

The country predominantly consists of two geologically distinct islands. The North is embodied by enchantment and tranquility, every vista dreamy on the eye as it effortlessly rolls and curves. The South Island comes from a different surrealist collection, jagged lines and dramatic mountains providing a theatrical stage for your adventure. Central to both are soothing picturesque lakes, calming expanses of water from which your photos are framed.


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